U.S. Healthcare Quality & Cost Visualization
Tech Report HCIL Tech Report of the project
Project Sponsor: Todd Park, Chief Technology Officer, Department of Health and Human Services
Sohit Karol, sohitkarol at gmail
Jin Na Lee, ginnah at umd
Angela Noh, angela at cs.umd
Paul Rosenfeld, prosenf1 at umd
Awalin Sopan, awalin at cs dot umd dot edu
As the health care debate raged on in Congress, there are sectors of the American public that appear to be somewhat misinformed about healthcare. The cost of coverage is exploding for both individuals and businesses, but quality and effectiveness of care is not necessarily following suit. This is further complicated by the fact that costs are rising in some places much faster than others.
The Department of Health and Human Services is interested in employing visualization to try to attack both of these problems at once. The primary goals of the visualization tool are:
- Allow the average citizen to visualize health performance, quality, and cost indicators for his/her town
- Allow the average citizen to compare his/her town to other towns in the United States or in their region in key performance/cost indicators
- Spur mayors/citizens to take action to improve the quality and costs of healthcare (the mayor of McAllen, TX apparently was unaware that his town had the worst healthcare performance in the whole U.S.)
- Latest Draft Version (12/4). This one has references and is in IEEE format.
- "The Cost Conundrum" The New Yorker article that is one of the inspirations for this project
- "The Cost Conundrum Redux" A followup to the article above; provides more quantitative data
- "In Hawaii’s Health System, Lessons for Lawmakers" NYTimes article concluding even small steps to change the system can have lasting effects on health.
- HHS Hospital Compare - A tool from HHS that allows people to compare the quality of care at virtually every hospital in the U.S. The data is both searchable and downloadable.
- Dartmouth Atlas - A website by the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice which provides several tools to look at health indicators and costs. Also features an interactive map
- Differences in Costs and Care - New York Times visualization that provides a more in depth map than the Dartmouth Atlas Map, but still falls short of what we hope to achieve in our project.
- NH Resident Inpatient Discharges for Unintentional Injury by Mechanism, County, and Year, 2000 to 2004 - Another Atlas tool regarding with health related data that provides an analytic tool by map, tables, time-series and bar charts. If you click on a double map report right at the bottom, you can easily compare the multiple selections by multiple variables.
Peer Reviewed References
- Fisher, Elliott S., Bynum, Julie P., Skinner, Jonathan S. Slowing the Growth of Health Care Costs -- Lessons from Regional Variation N Engl J Med 2009 360: 849-852
- New England Journal of Medicine article that discusses the reason for large regional variation in the cost of health care. Makes similar conclusions to The Cost Conundrum.
- Elizabeth A. McGlynn and Robert H. Brook Keeping Quality On The Policy Agenda Health Affairs, May/June 2001; 20(3): 82-90.
- Discusses major flaws with the quality of health care in the United States and the lack of policy response to fix these problems. Very relevant to this project since people regard the U.S. as having the best health care in the world when in fact the WHO ranks the US #72 in the world.
- Wei Yu, Diane Cowper, Magdalena Berger, Mark Kuebeler, Joe Kubal and Larry Manheim GIS to Profile Health-Care Costs of VA Quality-Enhancement Research Initiative Diseases Journal of Medical Systems Volume 28, Number 3 / June, 2004. pp 257-269
- Discusses how the Veteran's Association used GIS as a tool to try to help guide policy on how to distribute funds in order to meet the needs of veterans. Also looked for discrepancies in the cost in different regions of the country.
- Matthias Kreuseler, Norma Lopez, Heidrun Schumann A Scalable Framework for Information VisualizationInformation Visualization, IEEE Symposium on, pp. 27, 2000 IEEE Symposium on Information Vizualization (InfoVis 2000), 2000.
- Health data is so complicated and unstructured heterogeneous information. This paper deals with the problems of supporting a variety of exploration tasks and gives an innovative solution about it.
- Thomas B. Richards, Charles M. Croner, Gerard Rushton, Carol K. Brown and Littleton Fowler Geographic Information Systems and Public Health: Mapping the FuturePublic Health Reports (1974-), Vol. 114, No. 4 (Jul. - Aug., 1999), pp. 359-360
- Mohsen Rezaeian How to Visualize Public Health Data? Part one: Box Plot and MapMiddle East Journal of Family Medicine December 2008 - Volume 6, Issue 10
- Mohsen Rezaeian How to Visualize Public Health Data? Part two: Direct and Indirect Standardization MethodsMiddle East Journal of Family Medicine January 2009- Volume 7, Issue 1
- Alan M. MacEachren, Colin Polsky, Daniel Haug, David Brown, Frank Boscoe, Jaishree Beedasy, Linda Pickle, Mark Marrara Visualizing spatial relationships among health, Environment environmental and demographic statistics: Interface design issues , Proceedings of the 18th International Cartographic Conference, June 21-27, 1997, Stockholm, Sweden, pp 880-887
- A M MacEachren, C A Brewer, L W Pickle Visualizing georeferenced data: representing reliability of health statistics http://www.geovista.psu.edu/grants/nchs/reliability.htm Environmentand Planning A Volume 30, Issue 9 (1997), pp. 1547 – 1561
- MacEachren, Alan M., Cynthia Brewer, Linda Pickle Geographic Visualization: Designing Manipulable Maps for Exploring Temporally Varying Georeferenced Statistics Proceedings, IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, Oct. 19-20, 1998, Research Triangle Park, NC
- Radim Štampach, Petr Kubíček, Milan Konečný, Edvard Geryk Dynamic Cartographic methods for visualization of health statistics, ICA Symposium on Cartography for Central and Eastern Europe Proceedings, pp. 867-878, 2009
- Bambang Parmanto, Maria V Paramita, Wayan Sugiantara, Gede Pramana, Matthew Scotch, and Donald S Burke Spatial and multidimensional visualization of Indonesia's village health statistics, International Journal of health geographics, 2008, Volume 7, Issue 30